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DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED BUSINESSES AND FORMATION OF ENTREPRENEURIAL COMPETENCIES

 
04.04.2022 17:12
Автор: Kravchenko S.A., Sc.D., professor, Leading Researcher of the Department of Entrepreneurship, Cooperation and Agro-Industrial Integration, NSC “Institute of Agrarian Economics” NAAS, Ukraine, Kyiv; Bеzhenar I.M., Ph.D., docent, Senior Researcher of the Department of Entrepreneurship, Cooperation and Agro-Industrial Integration, NSC “Institute of Agrarian Economics” NAAS, Ukraine, Kyiv
[Економічне спрямування]

The identified problems and directions of development of small and medium-sized businesses do not allow us to consider the existing approaches to the formation of competencies among small and medium-sized businesses to be considered sufficient. Entrepreneurship requires a specific type of personality and behavior that is different from the rational behavior of an economic person. 

Entrepreneurs are characterized by an independent desire to create (conduct entrepreneurial activity) for the sake of making a profit, as well as the process itself. Within the framework of another approach, the list of general entrepreneurial competencies includes such personal qualities as resistance to loads; high personal responsibility; ability to sell; tendency to negotiate; ability to make connections; willingness to take risks; the ability to act in conditions of uncertainty [1, p. 233-269].

For the successful implementation of business plans for small and medium-sized businesses, in addition to the formation of entrepreneurial competencies, it is also necessary to form economic thinking and lay the foundation of an entrepreneurial culture. The desire to become an entrepreneur is also influenced by the prestige of entrepreneurial activity. 

A number of scientists distinguish two groups of entrepreneurial competencies depending on the level of their implementation and the impact on the competitiveness of the organization or individual: a) the professional characteristics of a particular individual (autonomous, private level); autonomous development of competencies is the satisfaction of the private interests of individual employees in the formation and enhancement of their competitive advantages in the labor market through the increment of knowledge, skills, abilities, authorities; b) the competencies of the personnel necessary for the entrepreneurial structure to implement the strategy and to achieve the main objectives of the activity: economic, scientific and technical, production-commercial and social (corporate, general level); corporate development of competencies (predetermined by the coherence and universality of private socio-economic interests of all subjects of labor activity, the willingness of the organization to undertake to create the necessary conditions for maintaining competitive advantages in the market in the interests of achieving goals and implementing the mission.

Also, among the entrepreneurial competencies, a number of researchers distinguish informational, communicative and project competencies, which are expressed in the following characteristics: resilience - the ability to exercise control over oneself in an extraordinary, extreme situation and effectively manage this situation; willingness and ability to apply design methods in practical life; readiness for self-organization of their activities; readiness to use information resources; the ability to independently identify the problem, find ways and means to solve it; readiness for effective communication [2, p. 78-84].

From the point of view of the functions performed in the professional competencies of a particular individual, three levels of competence are distinguished: additional competencies necessary for career advancement (for employees) and the implementation of entrepreneurial initiatives (for entrepreneurs); Competencies required to perform advanced functions; critical, i.e. absolutely important and not excluded competencies. The requirements for the structure of entrepreneurial competencies and the general perception of entrepreneurship in society are unstable and change over time. The perception of entrepreneurship depends on the availability of favorable conditions for starting a business, the general level of entrepreneurial knowledge and skills, on the level of the so-called fear of failure.

Over the past few years, the priorities of entrepreneurial skills have changed. In the first place in importance remains the skill of solving complex problems. This suggests that entrepreneurs need support from the state, as they face a fairly large pool of problems that need to be solved. 

The integrated development of competencies will allow, through the impact on the triad of values (the value of work, experiences and relationships), to obtain a synergistic effect from the realization of human potential. An integrated approach to the formation of entrepreneurs' competencies can be formed only with the participation of professional educational organizations that have the ability to segment the target entrepreneurial audience, a base of various programs and practice bases, and highly qualified personnel.

Thus, in the course of the study, it was established that when training specialists in entrepreneurship, it is necessary to take a comprehensive approach to the formation of entrepreneurial competencies, at the same time using a differentiated approach: depending on different goals and target audience, industry characteristics, the requirements of the state and the business community, the conditions of the economy and the type of digitalization should be taken into account. It is advisable to train an entrepreneur in a single educational process by integrating basic vocational and additional education. Basic entrepreneurial competencies are mainly formed when receiving basic education, and specialized on the basis of additional education.

References:

1. Gibb, A. A. In Pursuit of a New ‘Enterprise’ and ‘Entrepreneurship’ Paradigm for Learning: Creative Destruction, New Values, New Ways of Doing Things and New Combinations of Knowledge. International Journal of Management Reviews. 2002. № 4 (3). рр. 233-269.

2. Orlova, L. Digital Transformations in Entrepreneurship. International Day of Science. Economics, Management, Innovation. Proceedings of the International Science Conference. Olomouc Czech Republic. 2019. рр. 78-84.



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