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CLUSTER POLICY AND ITS ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES

 
04.04.2022 17:18
Автор: Kravchenko S.A., Sc.D., professor, Leading Researcher of the Department of Entrepreneurship, Cooperation and Agro-Industrial Integration, NSC “Institute of Agrarian Economics” NAAS, Ukraine, Kyiv; Malik L.M., Ph.D., docent, Leading Researcher of the Department of Entrepreneurship, Cooperation and Agro-Industrial Integration, NSC “Institute of Agrarian Economics” NAAS, Ukraine, Kyiv
[Економічне спрямування]

The concept of clusters is an approach to stimulating economic development adequate to modern conditions, the distinctive features and advantages of which are the adoption of comprehensive dynamic competition and linking the problems of the meso- and macro-level with the conditions of operation of specific enterprises. At the same time, the cluster policy consists in creating conditions for the formation and development of clusters, but not in the artificial creation of the clusters themselves directly [1, p. 255-293].

In general, three levels can always be distinguished in the organizational structure of cluster policy: ministries, whose responsibility includes the goals and resource support of cluster policy; authorized agencies that perform the functions of examination, monitoring and coordination of inter cluster projects; specialized cluster organizations that perform representative and coordination functions in individual clusters. In most cases, cluster programs are initiated and coordinated by ministries responsible for the objectives set out in the programs. Coherence in the actions of the various ministries (vertical and horizontal communication between the authorities at one or more levels) is particularly important.

To identify typical organizational structures of cluster policy, it seems appropriate to reduce the potential number of possible factors. The Scandinavian countries seem to be suitable objects for analysis, including because they recognize the importance of a formalized cluster policy. For example, in Finland, we can see a change in the organizational structure from the management of the program by several ministries, to the creation of an interdepartmental committee. In general, we can talk about the existence of the three broadest organizational types of cluster policy.

The first organizational type of cluster policy is the "one-stop-shop" system: inter-ministerial structures – "one-stop-shop" agencies are created to plan, finance and implement specific programs. Specialized cluster development organizations interact with only one structure, and not with several executive bodies. This approach allows you to reduce transaction costs and make the process of interaction of various structures more efficient. But it requires considerable effort, since it is fraught with the resistance of individual departments at the stage of creation, characterized by the bulkiness and sluggishness of the "one-stop shop" agency, resulting in the complexity of functioning.

The second organizational type of cluster policy is matrix; several ministries and their affiliated agencies are involved in the implementation of the cluster program. In such cases, the specialization of ministerial "branches" (innovations, small business and others) is not uncommon. This is an extended version of the specialized approach to the organization of cluster programs, but it is characterized by greater flexibility. It does not remove the problem of interdepartmental cooperation, the issue of which is delegated to the level of specialized agencies, is effective with a clear interdepartmental delineation of tasks and the complementary nature of the latter.

The third organizational type of cluster policy is specialized; in this structure there is an authorized ministry responsible for decision-making, concentrating and allocating resources. Which ministry will play a leading role in cluster policy directly depends on the direction of the policy, since the ministries regulate using the tools at their direct disposal. The interaction of the authorized executive body and specialized cluster development organizations is carried out with the assistance of the agency, which is often an expert body that performs monitoring and evaluation functions. A potential advantage of this organizational form is simplicity, however, in the case of the implementation of cluster policy at the junction of directions, limiting the scope of application.

Among the organizational structures of cluster programs, the matrix program is the most common. In some countries, the type of organizational structure remains unchanged from program to program (for example, in Japan, Norway, Holland), in others the organization of cluster programs undergoes changes (for example, in Finland and Sweden). Possible reasons for these changes may be such factors as the initial perspective, continuity, efficiency, duration of cluster programs, as well as the variability and flexibility of the political system as a whole [2, p. 529-548].

Almost every implemented cluster program can be attributed to one of the above-mentioned types of organizational structure. At the same time, even in one country, one can observe examples of different types of organizational structures of cluster policy, which exist in parallel or successively replace each other in time. Therefore, the selected forms only confirm the thesis that the management of cluster policy cannot be carried out using universal methods and tools. Most of the typological differences between the selected forms of organization are associated with the functional body (the authorized agency and its functions) under the relevant ministries.

Thus, in the course of the study, it was established that for territories with a diversified economy it is more characteristic to organize on a matrix principle, or in the form of a "single window". For countries and regions with the presence of dominant industries, "one-stop-shop" and specialized options are more appropriate. At the same time, as the specialization of support facilities increases, it seems that the requirements for their maturity will become stricter.

References:

1. Winter S. G., Kaniovsky Y. M., Dosi G. Modeling Industrial Dynamics with Innovative Entrants. Structural Change and Economic Dynamics. 2000. № 11. pp. 255-293.

2. Zhang J. Growing silicon valley on a landscape: An agent-based approach to high test industrial clusters. Journal of Evolutionary Economics. 2003. № 13. pp. 529-548.



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