Effective employment potential and prospects of its implementation is one of the main issues towards creating conditions for transition to an innovative model of development of domestic enterprises. The features of its efficient formation in agricultural manufacturing sector are foreground among state programs and projects of socio-economic direction. With this in mind, it’s necessary to work out an effective mechanism of formation and exploitation of labor resources in order to solve the problem of development of different ownership agricultural enterprises.
The concept of potential finds its practical application in the study of different industries. Currently scientists are paying attention on the study of competitive potential, strategic potential, labor potential, the potential of information and so on.
The potential of agricultural enterprises includes the following components :
1. The production – a collection of resources (raw material, technical and technological and staff) needed for the food production.
2. Employment (human resources) – is the abilities of employees to create quality products (educational, qualifying, motivational levels).
3. Financial – is to ensure stable and vital financial flows, search for the external sources of funding provided as necessary optimization of capital structure.
4. Investment – is the investing different kinds of resources for getting profits, effects.
5. Innovation – a comprehensive possibilities for generation, acceptance and implementation of new (modified and radical) ideas for changing technologies to renovation of production.
6. Information – unity of organizational, technical and information capabilities that provide preparation management solutions and affect on the specifics of production through the collection, storage (accumulation), processing and dissemination of informational resources.
7. Smart – a collection of intellectual property, market and intangible assets of enterprise, abilities and skills of employees (intellectual resources).
8. Organizational and administrative – the ability of management system to ensure sustainable development of company’s potential and the level of its use.
9. Competitive – a potential company's ability to develop, manufacture, sell competitive products to customers.
10. Marketing – a collection of data about the market conditions, customers and suppliers of sales and services network.
With an eye to make the performance of agricultural enterprises successful and profitable, to have a strong position in the market among competitors, we ought to evolve and improve ourselves; we need to plan and maintain a high human potential of development .
Modern economics is exploring different approaches to the employment potential. In general terms, the employment potential is defined as an economic category that reflects the integrated system of social and economical characteristics of people who determine its ability to work.
From features of formation and efficiency of labor potential depend terms of economical development, improving living standards and welfare.
These features determined: deformation of all demographical structures and processes in rural areas, reducing psychophysical potential of rural workers through the increase of morbidity, disability and mortality rural population; significant labor burden caused by a decrease in the level of mechanization in agriculture, a high level of manual labor, violations of sanitary and technical and organizational conditions; additional burden on rural workers is work in private households; seasonal production, dependence on climatic conditions; low wages and incomes of peasants, reducing of intellectual capacity of peasants, no systematic mechanism that would ensure the regulation of labor potential reproduction villages in all phases considering generated features led to its gradual loss. Therefore, the identification and analysis of the causes of contraction and deformation of its structure are the main objective of preserving the employment potential of agricultural enterprises [3, p. 10].
Today both agriculture and cattle breeding are characterized by de-industrialization of production processes. Agricultural companies are not able to use effectively labor potential, as the technical condition of vehicles and equipment is in poor condition in terms of physical and moral deterioration.
It should be noted that at present number of peasant’s private farms is increasing, they use mainly low labor productivity. Since the individual farmers and small agricultural enterprises employ women, and sometimes involve children, it reduces the efficiency of agricultural employment potential of rural population
The most promising way is development of major form of agriculture that can provide employment space for the population of the village, will be able to maintain a high level of productivity, monitor the efficiency of labor potential, and rural economic development in general.
To automate production in agriculture we must improve the qualifications of workers. It should be noted that the training and preparation of human resources should not only to develop their skills, but also to expand the range of qualifying profile worker. This will lead to higher employment rate and to more efficient use of equipment, machines and mechanisms.
Thus, the technical equipment of agricultural production is the driving force for enterprise development and effective use of the labor potential in the agricultural sector. Therefore, important questions remain systemic mechanization and automation of production. Note that the skill level of production personnel has a significant impact on the use of technology. Given this we need to improve the qualification of workers in order to automate the manufacturing in agriculture.
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3. Luchik SD The mechanism of preserving the employment potential of the village: Author. Dis. on competition sciences. Doctor degree. Econ. Sciences specials. 08.00.07 "Demography, labor economics, social economics and politics" / SD Luchik. – Donetsk, 2010. – 38 p.